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Importance of Industrial Water Treatment Systems

Water treatment systems are essential to many types of industrial processes. Quality water treatment solutions are needed to treat wastewater and industrial process by-products to make them fit for disposal or reuse, among other applications. This blog will discuss the different water treatment processes and their importance across various industries.

The Goal of Industrial Water Treatment & Systems

The primary objective of industrial water treatment is to treat water in a way that makes it appropriate to use, consume, or dispose of. There are four main industrial water treatment systems:

  • Boiler feed water treatment
  • Cooling tower water treatment
  • Raw water treatment
  • Wastewater treatment

In industrial applications, raw water is pretreated to improve its production efficiency and process performance. This ultimately prevents the scaling and corrosion of the downstream equipment it comes into contact with. Removing mineral salts and corrosive gases preserves boiler systems, cooling towers, and piping from corrosion and scaling, which could lead to system failures.

In wastewater-related applications, removing suspended solids (TSS), fats-oils-grease (FOG), bacteria, selenium, heavy metals, and other regulated chemicals and substances allows wastewater to be reused or safely discharged into the environment.

Industrial Water Treatment Processes

Industrial water is treated using processes that achieve different results. Typically, multiple processes are used to meet the required water quality for food and beverage incorporation, steam generation, or other industrial applications. Water treatment processes include:

  • Water softening. Mineral content, such as calcium or magnesium ions, is removed through an ion exchange process.
  • Deionization. This water purification process uses ion exchange resins to remove contaminants such as iron, copper, calcium, cations, and anions.
  • Filtration. Water passes through a series of filters featuring various pore sizes (charcoal, gravel, sand) to remove parasites, dust, germs, and other particles.
  • Membrane filtration (reverse osmosis). This process uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and large particles from the water.
  • Deaeration. In this process, oxygen or carbon dioxide is removed from the water using steam.
  • Degasification/Decarbonation. Dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide are removed using this process. However, unlike deaeration, process steam is not used. Instead, cross-current air flows are used.
  • Ion exchange. Otherwise known as Water softening or demineralization, this chemical process removes dissolved ionic contaminants from water.
  • Dealkalization. This process removes alkaline ions to reduce water’s pH level. Using exchange resins, the unwanted alkaline ions are removed by exchanging chloride ion with anions.

In addition to these methods, there are also several disinfecting water treatments:

  • Chemical treatment. Chemicals such as chlorine, chloramines, or chlorine dioxide are added to water to kill existing bacteria and prevent the formation of new bacteria.
  • Ozonation. This process inactivates and kills viruses, cysts, and bacteria.
  • UV disinfection. UV light has a strong ability to break chemical bonds and kill microbes, making it an effective disinfectant.

Importance of Industrial Water Treatment to Various Industries

Water treatment processes are essential to many industries including:

  • Boiler feed systems and steam generation. In this industry, water treatment is used to dissolve and remove mineral salts, such as hydrogen sulfide gas and carbon dioxide gas. Decarbonation is performed to remove carbon dioxide and prevent carbonic acid formation.
  • Boiler feed systems and cooling towers. These applications use ion exchange water treatment to generate steam in a cost-effective and reliable manner.
  • Food and beverage processing. Ion exchange is a vital aspect of many types of food production. For example, wine and fruit juice production require a decolorization process. The beverages are also demineralized using special ion exchange resins. Sugar production requires Water softening processes, decolorization, and inversion.
  • Wastewater treatment. Ozonation is used in wastewater treatment applications to remove organic chemicals, color, and odor-causing contaminants. It quickly converts to oxygen and leaves behind no toxic residue. Contaminants can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and water.

Reynolds Culligan Industrial Water Treatment Solutions

Reynolds Culligan is the only single-source, comprehensive water treatment provider in the Mid-Atlantic. Our technology is vital to virtually all industries and applications. The quality of service we provide saves valuable time and business resources for our customers. Using our 70 years of combined industry experience, we provide exceptional products at highly competitive prices. All of our products come with professional after-sale services and follow-up.

Our industrial water treatment solutions include:

You can learn more about our industrial treatment solutions by downloading our free eBook, “The ROI of Industrial Water Treatment.

For more information about our customized water treatment solutions, contact us today or fill out this form to get a free estimate.

The Importance of Water Purity in Commercial and Industrial Applications

Many types of industrial processes require clean water to assist with cooling, cleaning, sanitizing, and a range of other tasks. To ensure water is consistently clean and ideal for these applications, it must maintain a certain level of purity.

At Reynolds Culligan, we provide water treatment services to help maintain water purity for a wide variety of industrial and commercial applications. We use our comprehensive water treatment technology platform to provide services for nearly any industry and application, with more than 70 years of experience backing us.

Industries That Use Pure Water

Multiple industries rely on pure water to facilitate certain processes. These industries include:


Manufacturing plants often use large amounts of water to dilute, cool, clean, fabricate, dissolve, and sanitize, all of which are processes that require pure water. 

Normally, water contains a mix of minerals and microbial life, which could pose a risk for equipment along with plant workers and end-users. Through the use of clean water in manufacturing, businesses can benefit from increased growth and a healthier environment.

Energy & Power

Energy and power plants require clear, clean water to facilitate hydroelectric power generation. Under-treated or untreated water could cause damage and erosion to steam generation equipment in these environments. 

Many types of energy and power equipment, including turbines, cooling towers, and boilers, rely on clean water to ensure efficient, reliable system operation.

Food & Beverage

food and beverage industry
Businesses in the food and beverage industry need advanced water treatment and purification methods to adhere to Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) norms. The Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) and European Environment Committee (EEC) require these companies to meet cGMP norms in accordance with health guidelines.

The food and beverage industry requires ultra pure water to produce uncontaminated foods and beverages, clean and sterilize equipment, and reduce downtime.

Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals

All hospitals, healthcare centers, and pharmaceutical facilities require high-quality, pure water. In addition to needing access to municipal systems with ample water supplies, the facilities themselves require sufficient on-site resources to treat and purify water. Visit our blog for more information about how purified water is used in the healthcare industry.

Educational Facilities

Schools of all types need clean water for everything from drinking fountains to kitchen sinks. Water treatment systems help remove or reduce any chemicals and compounds present in water supplies to ensure they comply with operation-appropriate standards. These systems improve water quality, enhance the performance of equipment, protect equipment from potential damage, and increase the ROI of educational facilities.

Hospitality & Lodging

Hotel rooms use an average of around 200 gallons of water per day. With such large quantities of water used in these facilities, hotels and other businesses in the hospitality industry need to make sure water is safe for consumption and use in pipes, showerheads, and appliances that could otherwise experience wear from pollutants and hard water. 

Municipal Water Treatment

Many homes and industries across the country need municipal water, which travels through a network of underground pipes. Although municipal water isn’t as healthy or clean to consume as filtered and purified water, it still undergoes treatment and processing to ensure it complies with drinking water standards in place under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The water quality of municipal water ultimately needs to be suitable for drinking, bathing, and cooking.

Wastewater Treatment

Industrial wastewater treatment processes help produce clean, reusable water while reducing the production of waste. 

Some of the key benefits of wastewater treatment include:

  • Reduced amount of waste produced and released into the environment
  • Prevention of water loss resulting from water pollution
  • Removal of potentially harmful chemicals

Car Washes

pure water for carwashes
Car wash facilities need pure water during the wash process, but they also rely on clean water to help maintain wash equipment and get the best results from cleaning chemicals. As a result, water quality can significantly affect the customer experience.

Some common concerns regarding water contaminants and overall quality include:

  • pH levels
  • Silica levels
  • Total dissolved solids (TDS)
  • Water hardness resulting from concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron, or manganese

Powder Coating

This finishing process entails the application of dry thermoplastic or thermoset powder to material surfaces, followed by heating, melting, and drying the powder to provide a long-lasting protective and aesthetic coating.

Many applications use powder coating to finish industrial equipment and tools. Using water treatment systems, powder coating processes benefit from high-quality rinse water devoid of dissolved and undissolved solids from previous coating steps. 

Water Treatment Services from Reynolds Culligan

A wide variety of commercial and industrial applications require consistently pure water for all types of processes. If you need reliable water treatment services, the professionals at Reynolds Culligan offer superior services using the latest technology. 

To get started on water treatment with Reynolds Culligan, get a free estimate today. For any additional questions or concerns, contact us and we’ll connect you with a representative.

Water Purification for Healthcare Applications

Water purification is achieved when water treatment systems remove unwanted organic and inorganic materials, chemical compounds, and biological contaminants from water. In healthcare, pure water that meets industry regulatory standards is invaluable for safe medical tools, processes, and facilities. Learn more about why water treatment is necessary and how your healthcare setting will benefit from installing a treatment system.

Why Is Water Purification Important to the Healthcare Industry?

Water purification systems provide pure and potable water by removing contaminants like bacteria, thus preventing harmful substances from entering the body of patients. Installing treatment and distribution systems at hospitals and other medical facilities provides access to reliably safe water, and the ability to monitor that water on-site. To that end, water purification offers numerous advantages for this sector.


Pure water aids in the disinfection and sterilization of equipment and tools that doctors and other healthcare professionals use on patients, which, in turn, improves overall patient care. The last thing a hospital or medical center wants to worry about is causing infection or illness in those who have come there for treatment.

That water is potable, tasteless, and odorless is vital, given the number of patients, visitors, and medical professionals who rely on clean drinking water. Kitchens and cafeterias also need safe water for food preparation. On-site water treatment systems can deliver the required amount of water that a facility needs with uninterrupted, on-demand service. Having pure water can also decrease a facility’s overall energy usage, and that leads to cost savings as well.

purified water for patient in hospital


In addition to general sterilization, water for drinking, and food and beverage services, some other water purification applications include:

  •     Boilers in utility rooms, as well as utility water treatment
  •     Washers for laundry decontamination
  •     Sample and specimen analysis
  •     Facility heating and cooling
  •     Laboratory and research water purification
  •     Medical diagnosis
  •     Hemodialysis

Healthcare Water Treatment Solutions at Reynolds Culligan

At Reynolds Culligan, our highly experienced team is ready to help your healthcare facility by designing and installing a comprehensive, high-performance water treatment system on-site. Our safe and cost-effective systems are capable of providing three tiers of purification: purified water, highly purified water, and water for injection. We will ensure that your facility meets all water and environmental safety regulations for the healthcare industry with a system customized to your specific needs. To do this, systems from Reynolds Culligan prevent scale and deliver uniform purification results. 

We serve the healthcare industry by offering facility monitoring, hospital HVAC water treatments, ice machine Filtration, and water management programs. Reynolds Culligan achieves this utilizing one or more of the following processes:

  • Deionization. To minimize corrosion and scaling within a system’s piping, ion exchange resins within a water tank can eliminate dissolved mineral salts. They bond with the salt particles in the water and isolate them from the water molecules.
  • Water softening. The goal of Water softening is to address hard water, or water containing minerals, and treat it so that it won’t cause mineral buildup in pipes. Systems achieve this utilizing an ion exchange treatment that removes calcium, magnesium, and other minerals from the water.
  • Reverse osmosis. This process makes use of a membrane within a system that is built to be semipermeable so that feedwater can flow through it under pressure. The membrane’s purpose is to catch dissolved particles that would otherwise contaminate the water. Ultimately, the water that does pass through the membrane has higher levels of purity.
  • Dealkalization. To lower the risk of corrosion and scaling while extending a system’s operating life span, Dealkalization lowers the pH level of water within that system. With the help of ion dealkalizers and brine or salt resin, this treatment can rid water flow of sulfates, nitrates, carbonates, and bicarbonates.
  • Filtration. Often taking place after sedimentation, water will flow through various filters for higher levels of purification, with the filters keeping pathogenic material from moving on in the system. There are many options in filter sizes and material compositions, with charcoal and sand as two examples.
  • Ultraviolet disinfection. UV disinfection, or UV radiation, utilizes ultraviolet light for water treatment. Specific UV wavelengths are effective at ridding water of microbial particles within a system, disturbing the DNA structure to eliminate the contaminants.

Partner With Reynolds Culligan

At Reynolds Culligan, our water treatment specialists can develop a custom, comprehensive water treatment process that enables your facility to treat water on-site to the extent that meets your intended purpose. We pride ourselves on being the only company acting as a single source for complete-technology water treatment solutions in the Mid-Atlantic region. Contact us today to learn more about installing a cutting-edge water treatment system at your healthcare facility or to get a free estimate.

How Does a Commercial Reverse Osmosis System Work?

Reverse osmosis is a technology that treats water to remove salt, chlorine, sediment, and other impurities. During the Reverse osmosis process, pressure is used to pass source water through a thin membrane. The semipermeable membrane allows the water through while catching the solids and bigger molecules like ionized dissolved salts and other contaminants. A wide range of industries and applications rely on commercial Reverse osmosis systems to deliver highly purified water when required.

Commercial RO Process

Commercial RO Process

The commercial Reverse osmosis (RO) process works by reversing the principle of osmosis, which is the natural tendency of water with dissolved salts to pass through a membrane from lower salt concentration to higher salt concentration. 

In an RO system, pressure is utilized to overcome natural osmotic pressure, forcing the source water with its dissolved salts and other contaminants through a semipermeable membrane. This membrane removes a high percentage of the impurities, resulting in highly purified water. The impurities and rejected salts concentrate collect above the membrane and are passed from the system for draining or further processing.

While RO systems are most common in industrial processes, they function the same way and offer the same benefits when used commercially. Each commercial osmosis system is customized based on the desired quality of water and the type of raw water issues you have. Common industries that rely on commercial RO systems include beverage, food, dairy, pharmaceutical, and more.

Benefits of Reverse Osmosis

Many commercial operations rely on Reverse osmosis due to its many advantages. As a water treatment process, Reverse osmosis offers the following key benefits:
Benefits Of Reverse Osmosis

  • Total dissolved solids reduction. The commercial Reverse osmosis process is one of the only water treatment processes that offers total dissolved solids reduction. Although other water treatment methods boast this capability, they aren’t as efficient as Reverse osmosis
  • Cost-effectiveness. Reverse osmosis is popular for various commercial operations due to its highly economical price point compared to other Filtration methods. This enables companies to treat large amounts of water while staying comfortably within their budget.
  • Eco-friendliness. Reverse osmosis is relatively environmentally friendly compared to other water treatment methods. Reverse osmosis systems require less energy than thermal distillation methods since they don’t require energy generation. By reducing energy usage, a company can lower its carbon footprint, aid against global warming, and protect the environment.
  • Alkalinity and hardness removal. Reverse osmosis can effectively remove contaminants such as magnesium and calcium ions that create hard water. It can also prevent unwanted alkalinity by removing carbonate ions.

Commercial RO Systems from Reynolds Culligan

Commercial RO systems are vital to a range of commercial operations, providing highly pure water for applications such as food and beverage processing, pharmaceutical production, car washes and more. At Reynolds Culligan, we are proud to be the only commercial and industrial water treatment services company in the Mid-Atlantic that provides comprehensive, single-source water treatment technology solutions for any industry or application. This allows us to save your business valuable time and resources while providing top-quality water treatment systems that meet your needs.

To learn more about commercial RO systems, or to get started on your custom water treatment solution, contact us or request a free estimate today.

Ultraviolet Disinfection in Municipal Water & Wastewater

Ultraviolet Water Treatment

The citizens in your community count on you to ensure that the water they drink is safe and the wastewater produced is treated effectively without issues that can cause environmental damage. Ensuring that your water and wastewater are free of contaminants and infectious agents is a must. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection treatment has a wealth of benefits for municipal water and wastewater systems.

UV Disinfection Services for Municipal and Wastewater

UV Disinfection Services for Municipal Water & Wastewater

Traditionally, the answer was to increase chlorine levels to increase disinfection power. However, allowable chlorine levels have been lowered as well due to concerns about discharging potentially dangerous chlorinated organic compounds. 

These competing pressures can make it hard to reach the right balance. UV disinfection is an alternative that allows you to keep water clean and safe without worrying about excessive levels of chlorine-based disinfectants. In municipal water treatment, UV disinfection is typically the final step in a multi-stage treatment process to remove any remaining protozoa, bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens that may have a negative impact on public health.

Ultraviolet light has been proven to destroy the reproductive capabilities of pathogens by damaging their RNA and DNA, effectively rendering microbes inactive and harmless. UV disinfection uses a wavelength between 250 and 270 nm for optimal disinfection. By configuring the system to provide the correct dose time, intensity, and configuration, water management officials can disable harmful pathogens without having to worry about excessive amounts of chlorine in the water.

These systems typically use mercury arc lamps or amalgam lamps alongside a reactor, ballasts, and a control system. Together, they safely purify water without harmful chemicals.

Benefits of UV Disinfection

Benefits of UV Disinfection for Municipal and Wastewater

UV disinfection stands in stark contrast to other options like chlorine and chloramines. Citizens will often complain about the taste of both chlorine and chloramines in water. Additionally, some worry about the safety of chloramines for applications like home aquariums. UV disinfection offers a variety of benefits, including:

  • No toxicity. UV disinfection uses light to eliminate bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and other pathogens. This process adds nothing to the water and doesn’t impact the chemical composition, therefore leaving no by-products in the water that would otherwise have serious effects on public health.   
  • Eco-friendliness. Ultraviolet disinfection provides a significantly more sustainable option than chemical disinfection. There is no chemical discharge to worry about, allowing you to keep levels of chlorine well within allowable concentrations.
  • Affordability. UV disinfection systems are highly cost-effective and pay for themselves over time. Once the system is in place, it can run reliably with minimal maintenance for many years. 
  • Efficiency. This system works both rapidly and effectively. This means that even high-volume municipal water and wastewater systems can still operate cleanly and safely. 
  • Effectiveness. Since a number of protozoa are chlorine-resistant, UV is the far safer and more effective choice. 

Reynolds Culligan UV Disinfection Solutions

UV Disinfection Solutions From Reynolds Culligan

The safety of the water and the environment within your community are of vital importance. Safeguarding your municipal water supply while keeping costs in line can require a delicate balance. UV disinfection provides a solution that can keep your water safer with minimal yearly maintenance for many years.

Reynolds Culligan is the only industrial and commercial water treatment service in the Mid-Atlantic region that provides a comprehensive water treatment technology platform. We bring over 70 years of municipal water and wastewater experience to every client. 

We want to help you provide the best disinfection solutions available in the community that you serve. Please contact us to discuss disinfection options, or allow us to provide a free estimate.

Understanding Industrial Water Filtration

Water filtration is a critical aspect of many industrial operations. From process water to potable water, Reynolds Culligan’s industrial water filtration systems are engineered to enhance your operational quality and efficiency. To choose the right industrial water filtration system for your needs, it is important to understand what water filtration systems do, their benefits, and the applications for which they are used. 

What is an Industrial Water Filtration System

Industrial water filtration systems are used to remove foreign elements from raw water through a series of different filtration and disinfection processes. Each step of the process is critical for meeting industry standards and government regulations for water quality. Industrial water filtration systems typically incorporate the following processes:

  • Intake. Raw water is pumped into the filtration system using gravity or electrical pumps. The intake uses a grate to keep large objects from entering the system.
  • Clarification. The raw water is subject to a series of chemical treatments that encourage particles and other contaminants to coalesce into larger clumps. The coagulated matter can then be filtered out of the water using filters and screens.
  • Disinfection. Once the water has been clarified, it is treated with chemicals, exposed to UV radiation, and/or filtered through a fine membrane in order to eliminate microscopic contaminants, toxins, and pathogens. 
  • Ion Exchange. The disinfected water passes through a cation resin, which removes calcium and magnesium to soften the water
  • Distribution. Filtered water is recycled back into the system for process uses, released into the environment, or recycled into potable water systems, depending on system requirements and government regulations.

Benefits of Industrial Water Filtration

Industrial water filtration systems offer a number of benefits for commercial, industrial, and municipal operations. Some key benefits of using Reynolds Culligan industrial water filtration systems are:

  • Improved Efficiency. With a quality water filtration system, you can enhance your operation’s speed and efficiency while reducing the need to pump in raw water from outside the facility.
  • Greater Sustainability. Water filtration systems allow you to reuse process water, reducing your overall water usage.
  • Reduced Energy Consumption. Our cutting-edge water filtration technology is extremely energy efficient and can be programmed to operate during off-peak hours to further reduce your energy bill. 
  • Minimal Maintenance Costs. Reynolds Culligan water filtration systems are engineered to be low maintenance, with easy treatment and resin replenishment.
  • Enhanced Safety. A better water filtration system means smoother operations, fewer equipment breakdowns, and reduced risk for environmental contamination.
  • Greater Equipment Service Life. Reynolds Culligan industrial water filtration systems can be integrated seamlessly into your line for quality filtered water that will enhance equipment service life throughout your operation.

Industrial Water Filtration System Types & Applications

Industrial Water Filtration System

Since water filtration is required for a wide variety of industrial operations, it is no surprise that there are a variety of methods and designs to choose from. The most common types of industrial water filtration systems are:

  • Boiler Feed. Designed to protect industrial boilers from scaling, buildup, microbial growth, and other problems caused by poor water quality.
  • Cooling Tower. Water filtration systems protect cooling towers from scaling, buildup, microbial growth, corrosion, and other water quality issues.
  • Raw. Raw industrial water filtration systems treat water pulled from rivers, streams, groundwater, aquifers, and other sources to reduce silicates, calcium, pathogens, and other contaminants present in the water.
  • Wastewater. Industrial treatment is used to remove solid and liquid waste and chemicals from water to meet requirements for reuse or discharge into the environment. 

Applications/ Industries

Industries and applications that use industrial water filtration include: 

  • Food and Beverage
  • Plastics
  • Medical
  • Biotech
  • Chemical Production
  • Automotive
  • Oil/Gas Production
  • Paper Manufacturing
  • Electronics

Industrial Water Filtration Systems You Can Rely On

Whether you are in need of medical-grade water filtration for pharmaceutical production or internal process water treatment for your industrial operation, Reynolds Culligan has the perfect system for you. Contact our seasoned experts to inquire about our industrial water filtration products, or request a free estimate today.


Can You Drink Softened Water?

Water naturally contains a variety of mineral compounds, such as calcium and magnesium. The amount of these compounds contained in a sample of water determines whether it is considered “hard” or “soft”. Hard water has high levels of minerals, while soft water has low levels of minerals.

The term “softened water” refers to hard water that has been processed through a water softener. The water softening process reduces the amount of minerals in water, which can alter its taste, smell, and look. These obvious changes, among others, lead many to wonder whether it is safe to softened water. Below, we address this commonly asked question as well as a few others.

Safety of Drinking Softened Water

water softener

Generally, softened water is safe to drink. However, the water softening process can lead to elevated sodium levels in the water, which can be detrimental to the health of people with high blood pressure.

Elevated sodium levels can occur because sodium is used in the softening process. Water softeners use an ion-exchange process that employs polystyrene beads charged with sodium chloride ions. As hard water moves across the beads, the mineral ions and sodium chloride ions trade places, resulting in lower mineral levels but higher sodium chloride levels in the processed water. Additionally, sodium is used to cleanse the resin that catches the unwanted minerals. Any residual sodium left behind after the cleansing stage can be swept into the processed water. The amount of sodium that ends up in the water depends on the hardness of the unprocessed water; extremely hard water will require more sodium to soften it, resulting in higher sodium levels in the processed water.

Given the highest limit on recommended levels of salt in drinking water is 200 PPM (mg/L), if the water hardness was below 400 ppm before it was softened, there is little to no risk in drinking the softened water. If the water hardness was above 400 ppm, then it may be necessary to purify the processed water further to reduce its sodium levels before drinking it.

Additional FAQs About Water Softeners

Why Is Hard Water Bad?

Hardness and softness don’t just impact drinking water. The more calcium and magnesium present in the water, the more likely scale and residue will build up in pipes, which can restrict water flow and require additional maintenance and repair. Additionally, soap doesn’t lather well in hard water, so you may find you’re using more soap and shampoo than you would if you had soft water.

How Do Water Softeners Work?

Water softeners remove minerals via an ion-exchange process. The polystyrene beads are charged with sodium chloride ions, which exchange places with the mineral ions when the water passes through the beads. The minerals are left behind, though the water takes on that bit of salt.

What Benefits Do Water Softeners Offer?

There are many benefits to integrating a water softener into a facility’s water-based systems, such as:

  • Extended equipment life: Water softeners extend the life of water-handling equipment by minimizing mineral buildup that can cause damage or degradation.
  • Reduced maintenance: Unlike soft water, hard water leaves behind minerals. This buildup needs to be removed to ensure equipment continues to work well.
  • Increased energy savings: Since soft water does not cause mineral buildup, there is little risk of mineral deposits restricting water flow, resulting in higher equipment efficiency and lower energy usage.
  • Enhanced cleaning efficiency: Softened water decreases the amount of cleaning solution needed when cleaning equipment, resulting in lower cleaning costs, water usage, and energy costs. Soft water can also save between 50-70% on soap products and efficiency of water heaters.

Water Softeners From Reynolds Culligan

Looking for water softeners for your facility? Reynolds Culligan is here to help!

Equipped with over 70 years of designing and manufacturing water treatment systems, we have what it takes to deliver a water softening solution that fully meets your needs. By offering free quotes, water analysis capabilities, and after sales services, we ensure you get the best system and service for your facility. Our application engineers are available to help you with everything from equipment selection to maintenance to repair. To learn more about our water softening solutions, contact us today.

Distilled vs Deionized Water: What Makes Them Different?

While both distilled and deionized water are both forms of very pure water, they are produced using distinctly different methods. Depending on the water source, distilled water could be purer than deionized water. However, that doesn’t necessarily mean distilled water is better than deionized water. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and the ultimate choice depends upon factors like cost and intended use.

Water Distillation

During the water distillation process, water is boiled which causes steam to form. The steam is collected in a separate container where it is allowed to reform as a liquid. Water distillation offers an effective way to remove solids, such as minerals, bacteria, and other organic compounds, making it an excellent method for purifying water systems and tap water.

Distilled water is the most common form of purified water and is often confused with deionized water. While both forms of water are safe to drink, deionized water is the purest of the two. However, distilled water is capable of conducting electricity, making it ideal for applications such as laboratory experiments. Its purity also makes it suitable for sterilizing medical equipment and for use in cosmetic products.

Water Deionization

Water deionization involves an ion exchange process that works to remove solid materials from water. During the process, untreated water flows through two oppositely charged resin beds. As this occurs, electrically charged ions are removed, leaving only hydrogen and oxygen molecules behind. The result is highly purified water that is ideal for applications requiring extreme water purity, such as automotive, pharmaceutical, biochemistry, immersion cooling, and more.

Deionized water does not contain charged ions, meaning it is resistant to electricity. This makes it the preferred form of water in many instances. For example, many machining and other processes involving high temperatures benefit from deionized water’s low electrical conductivity, as it helps to lower temperatures during manufacturing.

Water deionization offers an effective, cost-efficient, and consistent method for purifying water systems.

Effective, Safe Water Treatment From Reynolds Culligan

We understand that it is not always easy to get quick answers when researching water purification systems. With a vast amount of information on the internet, it can be overwhelming to know where to start. Hopefully, you now have the essential information to understand the distinctions between distilled and deionized water to help you determine which method may be right for your needs.

Since 1948, Reynolds Culligan has been the only water treatment company in the Mid Atlantic that offers a comprehensive, single-source water treatment technology platform that works for virtually any industry and application. We are proud to offer cost-effective solutions for residential, commercial, and industrial applications, with a modular platform that allows our customers to customize our solutions to their specific needs.

Our team has over 200 years of combined experience serving diverse industries such as:

To learn more about Reynolds Culligan and our water purification systems, please contact us today.

The Differences Between Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment

Coagulation and flocculation are two methods used to increase particle size and enhance filtration efficiency. Regardless of the size of the system, coagulation and flocculation are typically the initial steps in water and wastewater treatment.

At their most basic, coagulation and flocculation involve the process of adding positively charged chemicals to the water. These chemicals neutralize negatively charged dirt and other dissolved particles in the water, which causes them to bind with the chemicals to form larger, more easily filtered particles, called floc. Although both processes have the same end goal and are often used together, there are fundamental differences between the two.


Coagulation in water treatment uses specialized chemicals to encourage fine particles to clump together. These chemicals, known as coagulants, create an electronic charge that causes the particles to cluster into larger groupings that make them easier to filter.

Types of Coagulants

Coagulants used in water filtration applications are typically either aluminum or iron-based.

Common aluminum coagulants include:

  • Aluminum sulfate
  • Aluminum chloride
  • Sodium aluminate

Common iron-based coagulants include:

  • Ferrous sulfate
  • Ferric sulfate
  • Ferric chloride
  • Ferric chloride sulfate

In addition to the above, water filtration facilities may also use hydrated lime and magnesium carbonate.

Coagulation Process

The coagulation process uses coagulant chemicals to destabilize negatively charged particles in the water, such as dirt, clay, soil, and other organic particles. Since the negative charge is what keeps these dispersed particles from coalescing, neutralizing that charge allows those solids to stick together, creating submicroscopic clumps of particles known as microflocs.

To facilitate the collision of particles for optimal coagulation, the liquid must be mixed rapidly. This quickly disperses the coagulant into the water, while facilitating the formation of clumps by forcing more of the neutralized particles to collide. To ensure optimal coagulation, it is recommended that the water be agitated at high speed for 1-3 minutes after the coagulant has been added. Once the coagulation process is complete, the water is often treated using flocculation.


While coagulation helps to encourage particles to combine into larger, more easily filtered clumps, the resultant microflocs are still far too small for standard filtration systems to clear. Flocculation takes the coagulation process a step further by gently agitating the microfloc-containing water at varying speeds to encourage more particle adhesion.

Flocculation Process

The flocculation process takes treated water from the coagulation stage and mixes it slowly to increase the collision rate between suspended microfloc particles. As they collide, the microflocs bond further to create larger flocs, which are visible to the naked eye.

Through additional mixing, these flocs continue to grow and bond with other organic or inorganic polymers which may be produced by the coagulant or coagulant aids added during this step. With these polymers, the flocs form into macroflocs, which become increasingly heavy. The added weight allows the macroflocs to settle at the bottom, where they can be easily removed.

Flocculation Variants

The amount of flocculation induced during the mixing process differs based on the mixing speed and the amount of time for which the material is mixed. There are a variety of mechanisms used to control flocculation speed and particle aggregation to produce the desired particle size and consistency. While rotating blades are the most common flocculation equipment for large-scale water treatment facilities, other methods include granular media beds, diffused air, baffled chambers, and spiral flow chambers.

Expert Water Treatment by Reynolds Culligan

Since 1948, Reynolds Culligan has been the only Mid Atlantic industrial water treatment provider who offers single-source, comprehensive water treatment solutions for virtually every industry. To learn more about our extensive selection of water treatment technology systems for industrial, commercial, and residential applications, contact Reynolds Culligan today.

What is the Best Water Purification System?

The water purification process removes harmful contaminants and unwanted material from a source of water. Contaminants may include hazardous chemical agents, organic and inorganic compounds, metals, mineral deposits, and organisms like parasites, bacteria, and fungi. Water purification aims to remove as much foreign material from the water source as possible, making it suitable for human consumption or use.

What is the best water purification system

Commercial water purification also includes advanced purifying methods such as distillation and deionization. With the distillation process, the contaminated water is turned into vapor, then condensed back into liquid form as the contaminants fall out in the process. Deionization involves removing dissolved concentrations of salt and other material from the water source using specialized equipment.

Commercial water purification

The United States is known for its standard of living, due in part to the implementation of residential water purification standards that ensure clean drinking water. Numerous industries rely on commercial water purification, such as the medical sector, food and beverage production, pharmaceutical manufacturing, chemical engineering, and many more.

Water Purification Treatment Steps

water purification treatment steps

Most commercial water purification processes follow a four-step method for purifying a water supply:

  1. Coagulation and flocculation
  2. Sedimentation
  3. Filtration
  4. Disinfection

The first step involves isolating foreign matter in the water and making it more manageable. Dirt particulates pick up a negative charge as they move through the water. Adding a positively charged chemical agent to the water supply begins the purification process by neutralizing the dirt’s negative charge, causing it to coagulate into a larger mass known as “floc.”

Unlike individual dirt particles, the resulting floc is much heavier, so clumped material drops out of the water and settles at the bottom. This step is called “sedimentation,” and it naturally follows flocculation.

Coagulation and flocculation take care of most contaminants, but leftover particles or harmful bacteria such as E. Coli may survive the process. Additional filtration passes the water through a series of filters made out of sand, gravel, and charcoal to remove any remaining debris.

coagulation and flocculation

The final decontamination step will eradicate any remaining bacteria missed by the filters. Administering a safe ratio of chlorine will kill remaining organisms and prevent future bacteria growth. No matter how many filters the water passes through, decontamination remains essential because viruses, fungi, and bacteria are microscopic and may slip through.

Deionizer Systems to Purify Water

Deionization provides an extra layer of protection beyond the basic purification process. Through deionization, virtually all contaminants, including dissolved salts, are removed from the water. With many types of deionizing equipment and services on the market that offer a varying range of capabilities, the team at Reynolds Culligan often gets asked: What is the best water purification system for deionizing water?

deionizer systems to purify water

The answer to that question depends on the scale of the job at hand. Reynolds Culligan offers two different deionization solutions:

  • Culligan Premier Series Deionizer System. Our premier line of water purification systems can deliver ultra-purified water on an ongoing basis. Numerous industries contain applications that require “blank water.” Deionized blank water is 100% free from all contaminants. Our premier series offers full control over the deionizing process by allowing full resin tank customization. Users can create a combination of weak and strong base tanks suited to the specific application and choose between a manual and automatic regeneration process for additional control.
  • Culligan Portable Exchange Deionizer (PEDI) System. Our line of portable exchange deionizers offers an ideal solution for creating ultra-purified water from remote water sources. Our PEDI systems use a combination of activated carbon and high-quality ion exchange to give you access to clean, purified water in remote locations where mobility is required.

Water Treatments With Reynolds Culligan

Culligan® Premier Series Deionizer Systems

Reynolds Culligan has a long history of excellence in commercial water treatment dating back to 1948. As the mid-Atlantic’s only single-source supplier of comprehensive water treatment technology, we work with virtually all industries to supply custom water purification platforms based on each company’s individual needs.

Please contact us to set up your consultation for more information on our water treatment solutions.